The unmanned probe Chinese Chang E3 landed on the lunar crater Sinus Iridium (Bay of Rainbows), making the Asian country in the third-after USA and the USSR to achieve a controlled landing on the moon, 37 and 4 months after the previous. The E3 Chang, launched from Xichang airbase on 2 December, and orbiting at a speed of 1.7 kilometers per second, began to slow when he was 15 kilometers from the lunar surface and successfully landed on the moon at 21: 12 Saturday 14/12. The previous controlled landing of a ship was the Soviet spacecraft Luna 24, of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the 18/08/1976.
The Chang’e-3 performed the 1st. World soft landing of a probe on the moon in nearly 4 decades. The last landing of this kind was carried out by the USSR in 1976. The lunar probe Chang’e-3 of China, with the 1st. Country lunar rover on board, descended to the surface of the Moon, the first time China sent a spacecraft to a soft landing on the surface of an extraterrestrial body. The lunar probe began to carry out the soft landing around 21:00 Saturday 14/12 and fell in Sinus Iridium, or Bay of Rainbows, about 12 minutes later, said Aerospace Control Center in Beijing. During the process, the probe slowed to 15 kilometers of the moon, flew 100 meters of the lunar surface to use the sensors in order to evaluate the area of landing to avoid obstacles and locate the final landing site, which made slowly on the surface. The success makes China the 3rd. country after the USA and the former Soviet Union in alunizar smoothly. Compared to the other two countries, which have made 13 successful soft landings on the moon, the mission of China stages designed suspension and obstacle avoidance to study the landing area much more accurately through the placement of sensors the scientists said. He, who was described as “black 12 minutes,” soft landing was the most difficult task of the mission, said Wu Weiren, chief designer of the lunar program. The Chang’e-3 was based on the self-control measures decrease, range and speed, finding the appropriate point and free-fall descent. The moon landing was carried out 12 days after the probe took off from a carrier rocket Long March-3B improved. The Chang’e-3 is part of the second phase of China Lunar program, including orbiting, descent and return to Earth. The mission takes place after successful carried out by the Chang’e-1 and Chang’e-2 in 2007 and 2010. The successful landing shows that China has the ability of in situ exploration of an extraterrestrial body, said Sun Huixian, deputy chief engineer in charge of the 2nd. stage lunar program of China. In recent years there has been renewed by the moon after the climax of the lunar missions of the decade of the ’60s and ’70s interest. The Chang’e-3 performed the 1st. World soft landing of a probe on the moon in nearly 4 decades. The last landing of this kind was carried out by the USSR in 1976. “Unlike the last century space race between the U.S. and the former Soviet Union, the current return of humanity to the moon is based more on curiosity and exploration of the unknown universe,” Sun said. “China’s lunar program is an important component of the activities of mankind to explore the peaceful use of space,” said chief engineer. For an ancient civilization like China, landing on the moon has another meaning. The moon, a major source of inspiration, is one of the most significant themes of literature and of ancient Chinese myths, including that of Chang’e, a woman who took her pet “Yutu” (jade rabbit) in a flight to the Moon, where he became a goddess. “Although people have discovered that the moon is discolored and desolate, it does not change its splendid role in traditional Chinese culture,” said Zhang Yiwu, a professor at Beijing University.